Thursday, May 21, 2020

Illeism Referring to Yourself in the Third Person

In English grammar, illeism is the act of referring to oneself (often habitually) in the third person. Also called self-talk. Someone who practices illeism is (among other things) an illeist. Adjective: illeistic. The practice of referring to oneself in the first-person plural as we is called nosism (also known as the royal we or the editorial we). Pronunciation   ILL-ee-iz-um Etymology From the Latin, that man Examples and Observations I do mind, the Dude minds. This will not stand, you know. This aggression will not stand, man.(Jeff Bridges as the Dude in The Big Lebowski, 1998)Heres one thing people dont know about Herman Cain: Im in it to win it. ... ​I don’t regret that choice of words because when people believe Herman Cain and his message, they know that it is sincere. (Republican presidential contender Herman Cain in an interview on Jimmy Kimmel Live!, Nov. 7, 2011)You dont have Nixon to kick around anymore because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference. (Richard M. Nixon, November 7, 1962)Women are an enigma as far as Grimes is concerned.(Captain Grimes in Decline and Fall by Evelyn Waugh, 1928)No, madman! Whatever you may see there—it is not fear! Fear is for lesser men. Never for Doom!(Doctor Victor Von Doom, Super Villain Team-Up #12)Jimmys gonna get you, Kramer! Hands off Jimmy! Dont touch Jimmy!(Jimmy, The Jimmy. Seinfeld, 1995) Donald Trump on Donald Trump—and Martin Amis on Martin Amis If we agree that referring to yourself in the third person is not usually a sign of psychological well-being, how do we assess the following? Donald Trump builds buildings. Donald Trump develops magnificent golf courses. Donald Trump makes investments that create jobs. And Donald Trump creates jobs for legal immigrants and all Americans. Well, Martin Amis thinks, for a start, that the author of  Crippled America  [Donald Trump, 2015]  is a lot crazier than the author of  The Art of the Deal [Donald Trump, 1987]. Martin Amis is aware that  Crippled America  was published on November  3, 2015, at which point only a couple of blatant no-hopers had quit that crowded field. Martin Amis is sure that  Crippled America,  if updated by Trump the nominee, would be dramatically crazier. And Martin Amis concludes that after a couple of days of pomp and circumstance in the White House, Trump’s brain would be nothing more than a bog of testosterone. (Martin Amis, Don the Realtor: The Rise of Trump. Harpers, August 2016) Illeistic Athletes When Andrew Bogut called the NBA draft a great day in the life of Andrew Bogut, the family of Andrew Bogut, the top pick of the Milwaukee Bucks became yet another prominent person fond of the third-person voice, whose strange fraternity of admirers has long included Miss Manners, Bob Dole and Kermit the Frog. ... [T]he cult of third person-ality is far and away most prevalent in professional sports, in which every other athlete now refers to himself as if he were somebody else. This trend annually sinks to a new sub-basement of silliness at the NBA draft, where even those put off by the third-person voice seem obliged to try it on, along with the team baseball cap. Said Sean May, before being selected by the Bobcats, When you look at Sean May—and I dont mean to talk in the third person—you know what youre getting. ... Wade Boggs once said to a television interviewer, in attempting to explain his predilection for the third person, My father always told me not to be a braggart, not to say I, I, I. (To which one can only say i-yi-yi.) (Steve Rushin, There Is No I in Steve. Sports Illustrated, July 11, 2005) Ozzie Smith is not a uniquely talented person. In fact, he is no different than any man, woman, boy, or girl in this audience today. (Ozzie Smith, on his induction into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2002) I wanted to do what was best for LeBron James and what LeBron James was going to do to make him happy. (Basketball player LeBron James, announcing that he was leaving the Cleveland Cavaliers to join the Miami Heat, July 8, 2010) Illeism in Shakespeare Caesar shall forth; the things that threatened me Neer looked but on my back. When they shall see The face of Caesar, they are vanished. (Caesar in Act Two, scene 2 of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare)    And what so poor a man as Hamlet is May dot express his love and friending to you, God willing, shall not lack. (Hamlet in Act One, scene 5 of Hamlet by William Shakespeare) Shakespeare uses similar illeism when Othello says, Man but a Rush against Othellos brest, | And he retires. Where should Othello go? (Othello, Vii, 268–9), in which the distanced self is made the subject of a despairing rhetorical question. It contrasts with the egoistical confidence of Caesars illeism is such declarations as Caesar shall forth, and Danger knowes full well | that Caesar is more dangerous than he (Julius Caesar, IIii, 44-5), though the self thus fashioned proves brittle through its over-confidence. (Paul Hammond, The Strangeness of Tragedy. Oxford University Press, 2009) [I]t is the public style of the play [Julius Caesar] that makes its Rome a republic. The major scenes take the form of public debates. Even in private, characters speak formally, in lofty abstractions, and refer to themselves in the third person (illeism), as though they are spectators and audience of themselves as public figures. (Coppà ©lia Kahn, Shakespeares Classical Tragedies. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespearean Tragedy, ed. by Claire McEachern. Cambridge University Press, 2002) The Lighter Side of Illeism: Bob Dole on Bob Dole I am very proud to be from Russell, Kansas, population 5,500. My dad went to work every day for 42 years and proud of it, and my mother sold Singer sewing machines to try to make ends meet. Six of us grew up living in a basement apartment. That was Bob Doles early life, and Im proud of it. (Senator Bob Dole, March 14, 1996) Norm MacDonald: Aw, come on now, Senator, its a great impression. Listen to this: Come November 5th, a lot of people are going to be surprised by Bob Dole, because Bob Doles gonna win this election! Bob Dole: Doesnt sound a thing like me. First of all, I dont run around saying Bob Dole does this and Bob Dole does that. Thats not something Bob Dole does. Its not something Bob Dole has ever done, and its not something Bob Dole will ever do! (Saturday Night Live, Nov. 16, 1996) The Lighter Side of Illeism: Chris Hoy on Chris Hoy â€Å"In the last 24 hours, everyone has been offering an opinion on Chris Hoy. But what does Chris Hoy think of Chris Hoy? â€Å"Chris Hoy thinks that the day Chris Hoy refers to Chris Hoy in the third person is the day Chris Hoy disappears up his own arse. And there, in 26 gloriously instructive words, is why  Sir Chris Hoy  is Britain’s greatest-ever Olympian. (Scott Murray, Chris Hoys Crazy Few Days in 2008. The Guardian [UK], July 11. 2012)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Langston Hughes - 1024 Words

Abstract This paper will be about Langston Hughes and will discuss the topics hughes felt were important and his poems will be broken down to show you there was and is a deeper meaning behind everything. and all of his poems can be interpreted in many ways and can even be analyzed and can be relatable to all races. Langston Hughes is a well known African American writer /poet. Hughes is known for his hunger for change and the way he went about addressing the changes he felt needed to be made. Hughes addressed these points in different ways through his poems and his novels, each one had a deeper meaning and a specific them than the title.Langston Hughes addressed the topics and his poems have a deeper meaning behind†¦show more content†¦However, Hughes also seemed somewhat reminiscent of the south, as he started describing the â€Å"cotton and the moon, warmth, earth, warmth, the sky, the sun, the stars, the magnolia-scented South.† He called the south, â€Å"beautiful, like a woman,† but hughes also calls the south â€Å"a dark-eyed whore...cruel...syphilitic.†Hughes admits that he would love the south, if only the south would love him back instead of turning its back on him because he was black. With no place for him in the south, hughes stated he started seeking the north as a â€Å"kinder† alternative where his children would be able to escape the racism, hatred, and violence that is known in the south. The poem offered insight into how African Americans viewed the south. This showed he was willing to see the good in all bad situations. and that changed everyones outlook on the south even though he confused some. Hughes had a different style of writing,his style was simple yet smart he had lots info to back up his thoughts and opinions he had a need to let people see how he viewed things hoping to have a positive an effective outcome for the future generations. Hughes had a big need with trying to hope for a better and brighter future with everything being better than what heShow MoreRelatedLangston Hughes Biography1058 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"James Mercer Langston Hughes, known as Langston Hughes was born February 2, 1902 in Missouri, to Carrie Hughes and James Hughes.† Years later his parents separated. Langston’ s father moved to Mexico and became very successful, as his for mother, she moved frequently to find better jobs. As a child growing up Langston spent most of his childhood living with his grandmother named Mary Langston in Lawrence, Kansas. Mary Langston was a learned women and a participant in the civil rights Movement. WhenRead More Langston Hughes Essay1356 Words   |  6 Pagesstands out as one of the most prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes defined himself by his ability to pursue the true essence of â€Å"black folk† at a time when black identity, culture, or art was considered an oxymoronic concept. Hughes sought to explore the true identity of Black America even amidst criticism that his work was anti-assimilationist in its literary expression. Wallace Thurman, one of Hughes’ closest friends had this to say about the poet’s subject matter: â€Å"He wentRead More`` Dreams `` By Langston Hughes Essay1667 Words   |  7 Pagesimpacted the movement against racial inequality, Langston Hughes turned the pages with inspiring work. Whereas in Langston Hughes poem Dreams encourages people to achieve ones goals and goals for a community of people no matter what the obstacles are; Hughes illustrated this through using a lyrical style of writing and metaphors. Due to the lack of acknowledgment of African Americans cultural, social and artistic capabilities, Langston Hughes stood as the hero image for blacks everywhere. LikewiseRead MoreThe Langston Hughes570 Words   |  2 PagesLangston Hughes’ style of poetry renounced the classical style of poetry and sought out a more jazz and folk rhythm style. Most of Hughes’ poems were written during the Harlem Renaissance, named after the cultural activity African Americans participated in, such as: literature, music, art, theatre, and political thinking. William Blake, on the other hand, was a nonconformist who was associated with the leading radical thinkers of his day. Although, considered a lyric poet and a visionary, Blake’sRead MoreLangston Hughes Essay1084 Words   |  5 PagesLangston Hughes was a large influence on the African-American population of America. Some of the ways he did this was how his poetry influenced Martin Luther King Jr. and the Harlem Renaissance . These caused the civil rights movement that resulted in African-Americans getting the rights that they deserved in the United States. Hughes was born in 1902 in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was young and his grandmother raised him. She got him into literature and education; she was one ofRead MoreA Brief Look at Langston Hughes1413 Words   |  6 PagesLangston Hughes Langston Hughes’ challenging background, ethnicity, and era of life can all be thought of reasons as to why his style of writing relates among discrimination and unsettling topics. Although his writing can be said to bring hope to the African Americans, his style can be frightening and daunting when taken the time to read his pieces. They may not seem real, but they are his way of interpreting and informing the future of what African Americans, like himself, had to go throughRead More Langston Hughes Essay670 Words   |  3 Pages James Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was very small, and his father (who found American racism made his desires to be a lawyer impossible) left the family and emigrated to Mexico. Hughes mother moved with her child to Lawrence, Kansas, so she and he could live with his grandmother, Mary Langston. Langston Hughes mother moved to Topeka in 1907, leaving the five-year-old with his grandmother. Langston came from a family of African-AmericanRead MoreEssay on James Langston Hughes891 Words   |  4 Pages (February 1, 1902 - May 22, 1967) Born in Joplin, Missouri, James Langston Hughes was born into an abolitionist family. He was the grandson of grandson of Charles Henry Langston, the brother of John Mercer Langston, who was the the first Black American to be elected to public office in 1855. Hughes attended Central High School in Cleveland, Ohio, but began writing poetry in the eighth grade, and was selected as Class Poet. His father didnt think he would be able to make a living as at writingRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance By Langston Hughes1033 Words   |  5 Pagesfrom 1920 to around 1935. Even though this period was short, it still lives on though all African American artists today. According to in the article about Langston Hughes, there were many artist, musicians, and writers such as Langston Hughes, who was a huge part of the Harlem Renaissance period. Langston Hughes was a well-known poet and play writer. In the magazine called â€Å"The Crisis† his poem â€Å"Negros Speak of River† was published in 1921 and brought him attention in all the blackRead MoreBiography of Langston Hughes Essay1046 Words   |  5 Pages The well known poet Langston Hughes was an inspiring character during the Harlem Renaissance to provide a push for the black communities to fight for the rights they deserved. Hughes wrote his poetry to deliver important messages and provide support to the movements. When he was at a young age a teacher introduced him to poets Carl Sandburg and Walt Whitman, and they inspired him to start his own. Being a â€Å"darker brother,† as he called blacks, he experienced and wanted his rights, and that

Competitive advantages Free Essays

Competitive Advantages Competitive advantage exist when an organization acquires or develops a combination of attributes that allows it to outstrip Its rivals. These properties can Include access to natural resources, such as Inexpensive power or high grade ores, or skilled personnel human resources and admission to highly developed. Competitive advantage can occur using new technologies such as robotics and information technology can provide, whether increase the percentage of the merchandise itself, as an advantage to the fashioning of the product, or as a competitive aid in the equines process. We will write a custom essay sample on Competitive advantages or any similar topic only for you Order Now Tests is the market leader in the grocery retail market. Tests have reached this status by base on their competitive advantage to compete on grounds of pricing and distribution schemes. Tests also sustains and maintain its competitive advantage through product portfolio expansion and strategic competitive pricing to get and hold its status. The best reasons for the great competitive advantage of Tests can be found from the way it reacted to the increase of the internet. The patient and dynamic approach enabled them to build and construct a sound long-term volts of hat the Internet meant for the core client of the company and to what kinds of actions that would take from the Tests. As a consequence of the early launch, when the expectations towards the Internet based commercial enterprises began to develop, Tests already been evolving the online help for a twosome of years. Tests is a purely online grocery retailer Scads 10 year Journey has been a noteworthy good story, as it has been able to exist in the very competitive online grocery market. It stays to be determined whether the Coda way with only warehouses becomes the sustainable or the good way to operate in the online grocery market. But, Tests and its competitions are well matched to make a motion to that model should the enough demand pick up. After that happens, they are well equipped by using the stores for both the rapidly growing click collect and home delivery. Teaches foresight and clarity around the selected vision has rendered It almost 50% market share In a swiftly growing the market. Carefully emerging competitors or evaluate established In the crestless Industry to Identify their strong suits. Look at their weaknesses and opportunities creates for a new society to make a footing in the securities industry by addressing those gaps. It also evaluate companies that have create a leadership spot in other market places for lessons and ideas on how competitive advantages can effectively be built up. Review what is known about the competitive landscape to understand reason in the outside environment that may be a source by the competitive advantage. Then, the name of the competitive advantages for these companies have developed as well as the business strategies they have put into place for capitalize on them. With the continuous innovation and improvement companies are capable to supply customized products to Increase the number of clients. At the same time, clients are getting the benefit of the competitive marketplace environment, The exertion to provide best possible services to customers enables a company to make It In the rolled competition. At the same times, that company reaches an edge over its contenders and can glean the benefits (I. . The current business environment the companies with maximum number of customers and market share will have a competitive edge over others. For this company are striving to offer the best retailing services and ease the process of shopping. Competitive advantages that companies receive from online ordering services include: . Increased market share: more and more customers find it easy t o buy online. A user friendly web site and app will attract more people. 2. Companies can get the â€Å"economies of scale† advantage. By this way companies are capable to provide discounted prices on products with attractive promotion schemes. 3. Client Database: One of the best advantages that supermarkets can get from online ordering services is to maintain a customer database. This database keeps the track of customers’ purchases, their picks and shopping trends. Companies using market intelligence can apply this data in several ways in order to provide best revises to their clients. Analysis Existing Competitor And Global Strategies Tests introduced the latest superstore concept in Britain. After a few years from the appearance superstore became very famous for its full range of products at competitive cost. After that, Tests introduced its first gas station, which had the lowest price for petrol but was adjacent to Tests superstore. Tests overtook from Ginsburg and became a I-J largest supermarket. Entering foreign markets in the beginning half of the ass were built primarily by buying existing stores or Joining the domestic retail leader. In year 1997 expansion in Asia market began from acquiring 13 shops from the CAP Group in Thailand and formed Tests Lotus. In 1999 market was reached by Joining with Samsung entrance to the South Korea. After that, loyalty card was introduced by Tests, branded ‘Club card’, in year 1995. This card was given discount to customer but what is more important is this card gave an opportunity or chance to keep a hand on a pulse of customers need and to collect all data for future planning. New goals were set for expansion of the foreign market and developing of a non-food products. Every little helps† is the main advertising slogan appeared from Deco’s. This advertisements in print and on television mainly include of product shots or an appropriate image against a white ground, and also include a price or appropriate text, for example â€Å"Tests Value†. On video, voiceless are provided by recognizable actors and sponsors, such as James Newsiest, Jane. Next, Deco’s famous loyalty card. Club card still can be identified as the most successful strategy that makes for a huge role in financial profitability upkeep for Tests. Brand Tests can increase and hold its customer base because of its fixed tendency to attics client demands, customizing service to maintain lower prices. Masses tend to fill more of their needs in one topographic point and in shorter time, it indicates a requirement for large chains to extend their services into new markets as banking, Fairly traded products as tea, deep brown and cocoa are viable, and such merchandise is nowadays widely available on the majority of big chains. In 2005 Tests had the biggest range of fair-trade products in the I-J, it was represented by 91 fair-trade product line. However, distinguishing with the overall context of the 0,000 product lines it looks rather tiny (0. 2%) achievement by supporting third-world countries. In addition, there are prove that supermarkets exploiting customer goods will by overcharging for fair trade merchandise. â€Å"The supermarkets know that people do not work for the most inexpensive product when buying fair trade because they believe the surplus money is helping someone in the training world. † John McCabe. In international expansion Tests took to attention difference in preferences between different countries. It also very big attention was devoted to customers’ needs usually t was implement in the product line. For example in the Czech Republic, Tests most focus on providing Czech products in retail stores. But in China, the locals opted to buy live fish, meat and other famous products such as instant noodles, unlike in European nations. Similarly in Thailand, the customers spent a vast balance of their salary or income for fresh foods. To adapt to the shopping habits of the Thai customers, Tests build a new market hall with is an area contiguous to the main store, where in 14 local vendors sold a range of meat, fresh fruits, veggies and other local food. This arena was planned to supply the Thai customers with traditional and local ambiance. On 1997, Tests announced the purchase of the retail branch of Associated British Foods, which consisted of the Crazy Prices chains in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, as well as associated businesses for IEEE Meg. This acquisition made it both a major presence in the bigger presence in Northern Ireland than Sunburst’s and a Republic of Ireland. Deco’s non-food marked faced a biggest competition level in KGB from such giants like MarksSpenser and USDA. In the beginning of the entrance to the Hungarian market main competition was presented by little family-run stores, which served immediate needs to customers. The strategy against it was introduced more than 1000 its own label products at 20% cheaper price compare with branded ones. Deco’s international expansion strategy in Asia was primarily represented as Joint ventures with the domestic partner firms like Charger Backhand in Thailand and Samsung Group in South Korea due to sensitivity of domestic market for foreigners and a bit more complicated than the rest of the others. In these mergers local personnel have an assured quantitative domination in low and middle management posts. It also formulates not big acquisitions an important part of its expansion strategy. In 2005, Tests announced that it was selling its operations in Taiwan in Careful and purchasing Carouser’s stores in the Slovakia and Czech Republic. This both companies said that they were concentrate on their efforts in rural areas where they experienced good market positions. In 2007 Tests decided to run its online operations head office in Switzerland because of tax reasons. This can allows it to sell CDC, DVD’s and electronic games through its website. This chance or opportunity was decide by the government in June 2008. Tests has done a devotion to corporate social obligation, by contributing about 1. 87% of its pre-tax earnings to schools scheme†, offer the computers in return for hospitals and schools getting vouchers from people who shopping at Tests. Until year 2004, Meme of equipment belonged to these establishments. The schema has been also implemented in Poland. â€Å"BIT – Tests Computers for Schools† started during the 2005/2006 association football season the company now sponsors the Tests Cup. The cup now runs a boy’s competition at Under 13 year old and two girl’s cups at Under 14 year old and Under 16 year old. Over 40,000 boys alone Joining the 2007/2008 competitions. Tests was accused by the I-J Office of Fair Trading (OFT) for being a part of a price cartel among the top five I-J supermarkets such as Safely, Morrison, Tests, USDA, and Kingsbury. The investigation started in 2007 and in the same year USDA, Kingsbury and Safely adjudged them mistake of working against consumer or customer interest by covering of 5000 farmers support in recovering after the foot-and-mouth disease. On the other hand, Tests were maintain after deny any activity in this cartel. How to cite Competitive advantages, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Pink - Can#39t Take Me Home free essay sample

With her strong sense of self, gripping lyrics and one ofthe best producers in the music business, it seems that Pink has a winning albumon her hands. Pink is a native of Philadelphia, where she was aregular at many clubs. At 14, she first sang backup in a friends rap group andthen with a short-lived group, Basic Instinct. When they broke up, Pink joined agroup called Choice. Choice was signed to LaFace records, but didnt staytogether long enough to record an album. Pinks association with LaFace recordsproved successful, though, and she recorded her debut album Cant Take MeHome with them. This CD has such incredibly profound lyrics you cantell at once the artist put her own personality in each song. In MostGirls, Pink sings about looking for someone to fall in love with.There You Go is about breaking up with a boyfriend. With theartists great lyrics and attitude to match, this CD is unbelievable. We will write a custom essay sample on Pink Can#39t Take Me Home or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Any girlcan relate to Pinks lyrics and style of music. This CD has love songs andbroken-heart songs. It is the perfect blend of attitude and feeling. Pink emits asort of power to women everywhere. I recommend Cant Take Me Home toany woman who feels strongly about her emotions.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Women Needed Consider a Career in Trucking

Women Needed Consider a Career in Trucking Take a closer look at the faces behind the wheels of our nation’s trucks and you may notice a growing change- women truckers! This welcome addition to our nation’s professional trucking workforce comes at the perfect time, as more drivers are retiring than are getting into truck cabs and a shortage of qualified drivers threatens the industry. helps shed some light on an exciting new career option for women. Although the overall percentage of truckers who are women is still relatively low, this is a positive trend, and one that hopefully will continue to grow in the coming years. And there’s every reason to believe it will, thanks to the proactive efforts of such organizations as Women in Trucking (WIT), and trailblazing women such as Caitlin Welby, CEO of RFX global trucking; in addition to breaking industry boundaries for women, they’re helping to change the perception that trucking is bad for the environment- an important consideration f or many young job hunters entering the workforce.If you’re a woman who’s considering her options for her next job, don’t let stuffy traditions and outdated modes of thinking limit your options. Explore the world of professional truck driving- it just might lead to your next great job!Fresh Faces in Trucking: Solutions to Driver ShortagesRead More at

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Elisha Grays Telephone Invention Patent Caveat

Elisha Grays Telephone Invention Patent Caveat Elisha Gray was an American inventor who contested the invention of the telephone with Alexander Graham Bell. Elisha Gray invented a version of the telephone in his laboratory in Highland Park, Illinois. Background - Elisha Gray 1835-1901 Elisha Gray was a Quaker from rural Ohio who grew up on a farm. He studied electricity at Oberlin College. In 1867, Gray received his first patent for an improved telegraph relay. During his lifetime, Elisha Gray was granted over seventy patents for his inventions, including many important innovations in electricity. In 1872, Gray founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, the great-grandparent of todays Lucent Technologies. Patent Wars - Elisha Gray Vs Alexander Graham Bell On February 14, 1876, Alexander Graham Bells telephone patent application entitled Improvement in Telegraphy was filed at the USPTO by Bells attorney Marcellus Bailey.  Elisha Grays attorney filed a caveat for a telephone just a few hours later entitled Transmitting Vocal Sounds Telegraphically. Alexander Graham Bell was the fifth entry of that day, while Elisha Gray was 39th. Therefore, the U.S. Patent Office awarded Bell with the first patent for a telephone, US Patent 174,465 rather than honor Grays caveat. On September 12, 1878  lengthy patent litigation involving the Bell Telephone Company against Western Union Telegraph Company and Elisha Gray began. What Is a Patent Caveat? A patent caveat was a type of preliminary application for a patent that gave an inventor an additional 90 days grace to file a regular patent application. The caveat would prevent anyone else that filed an application on the same or similar invention from having their application processed for 90 days while the caveat holder was given an opportunity to file a full patent application first. Caveats are no longer issued. Elisha Grays Patent Caveat Filed on February 14, 1876 To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, Elisha Gray, of Chicago, in the County of Cook, and  State of Illinois, have invented a new art of transmitting vocal sounds telegraphically, of which the following is a specification. It is the object of my invention to transmit the tones of the human voice through a telegraphic circuit and reproduce them at the receiving end of the  line so that actual conversations can be carried on by persons at long distances apart. I have invented and patented methods of transmitting musical impressions or sounds  telegraphically, and my present invention is based  on  a modification of the principle of said invention, which is set forth and described in letters patent of the  United  States, granted to me July 27th, 1875, respectively numbered 166,095, and 166,096, and also in an application for letters patent of the United States, filed by me, February 23d, 1875. To attain the objects of my invention, I devised an instrument capable of vibrating responsively to all tones of the human voice, and by which they are rendered audible. In the accompanying  drawings  I have shown an apparatus embodying my improvements in the best way now known to me, but I contemplate various other applications, and also changes in the details of construction of the apparatus, some of which would  obviously suggest themselves to a skillful electrician, or a person in the science of acoustics, in seeing this application. Figure 1 represents a vertical central section through the transmitting instrument; Figure 2, a similar section through the receiver; and Figure 3, a diagram representing the whole apparatus.   My present belief is, that the most effective method of providing an apparatus capable of responding to the various tones of the human voice, is a tympanum, drum or diaphragm, stretched across one end of the chamber, carrying an apparatus for producing fluctuations in the potential of the electric current, and consequently varying in its power. In the drawings, the person transmitting sounds is shown as talking into a box, or chamber, A, across the outer end of which is stretched a diaphragm, a, of some thin substance, such as parchment or gold-beaters skin, capable of responding to all the vibrations of the human voice, whether simple or complex. Attached to this diaphragm is a light metal rod, A, or other suitable conductor of electricity, which extends into a vessel B, made of glass or other insulating material, having its lower end  closed by a plug, which may be of metal, or through which passes a conductor b, forming part of the circuit. This vessel is filled with some liquid possessing high resistance, such, for instance, as water, so that the vibrations of the plunger or rod A, which does not quite touch the conductor b, will cause variations in resistance, and, consequently, in the potential of the current passing through the rod A. Owing to this construction, the resistance varies constantly in response to the vibrations of the diaphragm, which, although irregular, not only in their amplitude, but in rapidity, are nevertheless transmitted, and can, consequently, be transmitted through a single rod, which could not be done with a positive make and break of the circuit employed, or where contact points are used. I contemplate, however, the use of a series of  diaphragm  in a common vocalizing chamber, each diaphragm carrying and independent  rod, and responding to a vibration of different rapidity and intensity, in which case contact points mounted on other diaphragms may be employed. The vibrations thus imparted are transmitted through an electric circuit to the receiving station, in which circuit is included an  electromagnet  of ordinary construction, acting upon a diaphragm to which is attached a piece of soft iron, and which  diaphragm  is stretched across a receiving vocalizing chamber c, somewhat similar to the corresponding vocalizing chamber A. The diaphragm at the receiving end of the line is this thrown into vibration corresponding with those at the transmitting end, and audible sounds or words are produced. The obvious practical application of my improvement will be to enable persons at a distance to converse with each other through a telegraphic circuit, just as they do now in each others presence, or through a speaking tube. I claim as my invention the art of transmitting vocal sounds or conversations telegraphically through an electric circuit. Elisha Gray WitnessesWilliam J. PeytonWm D. Baldwin

Friday, February 14, 2020

Memo to Paul Taylor - AM Equipment Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Memo to Paul Taylor - AM Equipment - Term Paper Example One of the major steps that AM should take is to prepare going global. This entails establishing of various managerial positions that will be responsible for overseeing effective distribution of the products in the new markets. In its efforts to enter the three foreign markets, AM should establish an export sales department. Based on the fact that the company is currently based in US, the export sales department will ensure linkage between the production facilities is US and the sales outlets in the three countries. Additionally, AM should employ skilled marketing managers who will be responsible for overseeing the company subsidiaries located in the foreign countries. One of the advantages of the export sales department and the hiring of experienced marketing managers is that new policies such as effective pricing, extensive promotion and creating strong customer awareness will be created. For instance, the company will emulate penetrative pricing policy (Joshi 47). Through this pol icy, AM will enter the new markets using low prices without compromising the quality of its products. This will ensure that it acquires large customer base. However, the company will need more financial resources to cater for the marketing managers wages. ... After preparing to go global, AM should find the right market that will provide ready market for its products and skilled human resources. One of the key factors to consider is the population of the foreign countries. Additionally, the company should take into consideration the competition, political stability and regulatory environment among other factors. Being one of the developing economies with large population, South Africa is a viable country that AM should enter. In the same way, Britain and Australia have strong economies and high customer’s purchasing power thus proving a market opportunity that will enhance the sales and the profitability of the company. It is also vital to note that in order to encourage investments, South Africa, Britain and Australia have flexible regulatory environment that is essential for foreign direct investments. For example, South Africa has entered into double taxation agreement with US. As a result, AM will not face a lot of taxation cha llenges that may hinder its operations in the country. Additionally, South Africa taxation for foreign companies stands at 35% which is not so high. One of the major aspect that make the three countries viable markets that AM should consider is that they experience political stability that is essential for foreign and local investments. Even though AM Equipment Incorporation will be exposed to stiff competition from the well established firm in the three countries, the company will undertake extensive advertisement and promotion thus effectively putting at bay its competitors. Based on the political and technological development in the three countries, AM will benefit from adequate availability of classical factors of production that includes labor, capital, land and